City of Chicago
The first European settlement on the present site of Chicago was the Mission of the Guardian Angel. Established in 1696 by Father Francois Pinet, a Jesuit priest, it was abandoned in 1700. In 1779, Jean Baptiste Point du Sable, a Haitian, built the first permanent settlement at the mouth of the Chicago River.
Under the terms of the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, the Potawatomi Indians ceded a tract of land, six miles square, at the mouth of the Chicago River. The United States government began construction of a fort on that site in 1803. When it was completed in 1804, it was named Fort Dearborn after the secretary of war. Due to threats from both the British and Indians, the fort was abandoned soon after the outbreak of the War of 1812. Destroyed by the Potawatomi, the fort was rebuilt in 1816 and remained a military establishment until 1837.
After Illinois was admitted to the Union in 1818, Chicago was designated in a series of counties, but ultimately settled in Cook County in 1831.
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